In shops, in the streets, on the phone… You may have noticed that Japanese people bow all the time! Japan has a lot of hidden rules and manners, but the habit of bowing is evident.
Why and When Do Japanese People Bow?
Ojigi, the “bow,” is an essential manner for the Japanese people, especially when doing business. An adult who can’t correctly bow will be labeled rude or childish. Although the bow is routinely used in Japan, there are nuances that even some Japanese people might ignore! If you intend to do business with Japanese people, it is better to know the basics of the bow and its meanings. And if you want to work in Japan, you will soon have plenty of opportunities to practice!
Ojigi can express many things: salutation, gratitude, apologies, and respect. Nevertheless, they are rarely used between friends and family members. In non-business situations, the “bow” is primarily used for your elders, superiors, strangers, and acquaintances.
Ojigi: Dos and Don’ts
DO: If you are a man, you can keep your hands on the side of your body or keep your hands together in front of you. If you are a woman, you should keep your hands together in front of you.
DO: In a business context with foreigners, most Japanese people will shake hands with them and bow slightly at the same time. You will give an excellent impression to your business partner if you do the same.
DO: Say your greetings after you bow. This proper manner is called gosen-gorei in Japanese. However, many people actually bow while speaking!
DON’T: Curve your back. Keep it straight as a mark of respect.
DON’T: Join your palms in front of your chest to greet! This is a common mistake among foreigners visiting Japan for the first time. This kind of greeting is used in other countries, like in Thailand, for example. In Japan, this is mainly seen in places of worship.
The Different ‘Levels’ of Bowing
Now, let us get to the trickier part. There are various sorts of ojigi that are used depending on the situation. There are actually five ways to bow, but today, we will see the three main ones used when standing.
① Eshaku: It is a slight bow with an angle of about 15 degrees.
Example: In the case of passing your neighbor on the street, or when you pass a client or your superior in the hallway.
② Keirei: It is used most often in business, with a bow of about 30 degrees.
Example: When you visit your client’s company, gain a new client, or greet someone new. It is also used to express gratitude; for instance, if someone returns your wallet that you dropped on the street.
③ Saikeirei: It is the deepest of the three bows, at about 45 degrees.
You may not have an opportunity to use this bow daily.
This bow is for indicating your sincere apology or respect toward a person, so it will look awkward if you use this bow on everyone you encounter.
Example: In the case of you causing trouble for, let us say… the president of a company.
Observing Is the Key!
Of course, Japanese people do not bow at an exact angle because they do not measure it with a protractor! They learn it through their own experience as they grow up. So it might look very confusing at first, but the more you observe the people surrounding you, and the more you practice, the more you will “feel” when and how to bow!